Without modifying phrases, our writing would be very sparse – possibly bland. Modifying phrases are those parts of a sentence that ‘modify’ or describe the basic sense. Pretty much everybody uses them. But how to convey them on paper with the appropriate punctuation?
Two common mistakes are made with modifying phrases:
- A full-stop is used instead of a comma
- A semi-colon is used instead of a comma
In other words, modifying phrases need commas! They need to be closely attached to the main part of the sentence they are modifying.
Here are some examples of mistakes with modifying phrases:
- Scruffy was the best dog in the neighbourhood, with his black and white fur. His pink tongue and wagging tail.
- The house was tidy; its carpets regularly cleaned and toys carefully put away.
Remember the rules for full-stops and semi-colons?
A sentence following a full-stop or a semi-colon has to make sense by itself – it has to have a verb.
- ‘His pink tongue and wagging tail’ doesn’t tell us anything – we have to ask what about these things? A verb for sense is missing (don’t be confused by the presence of ‘wagging’! Yes, it’s a ‘doing word’ and tells us what his tail is doing but it doesn’t create sense for the combined subject of tongue and tail).
- In the second sentence, ‘its carpets regularly cleaned and toys carefully put away’ also lacks any sense – because this is a modifying phrase: it’s meant to modify the subject, verb and object ‘the house was tidy’. Without this statement in front of it, the phrase about carpets and toys makes no sense. Therefore it doesn’t stand alone and it can’t follow a semi-colon.
Properly written, modifying phrases are always attached by commas to the sense they are modifying:
- Scruffy was the best dog in the neighbourhood, with his black and white fur, his pink tongue and wagging tail. [This sentence has two modifying phrases, both modifying the statement ‘Scruffy was the best dog in the neighbourhood’]
- The house was tidy, its carpets regularly cleaned and toys carefully put away. [The modifying phrase in this sentence modifies the statement ‘the house was tidy’.]
Do you think you’ve got the hang of modifying phrases? Post a question if you’re not sure!
The semi-colon stakes a claim as the most misunderstood punctuation mark in the English language. That’s probably because it is the one that people see the least. And when they do see it, it’s often not being used correctly.
What to know about the semi-colon:
1. It looks like a comma and so is often mistakenly used to fill in for one. Part of the problem is that semi-colons can actually be used to fill in for commas – but only in a list.
2. The rest of the time, semi-colons are more closely related to colons: ‘semi’ apparently comes from the Latin term ‘half’, and means ‘partially’, ‘somewhat’, or ‘having some of the characteristics of’ whatever it is referring to. So the semi-colon is a little bit like a colon. Keep this in mind and you might have some luck with it – if you’re not writing a list, a semi-colon cannot be used an alternative to a comma.
The semi-colon is rare because there are only two circumstances in which it should be used:
1. When you are joining two independent sentences.
The semi-colon is not like a comma because commas are never used for joining independent sentences. If they are, what is created is called a ‘run-on sentence’ or ‘comma splice’.
Independent sentences (clauses that make sense by themselves and contain a subject and verb) should be separated with a full-stop or joined with a conjunction. However, sometimes you can join them with a semi-colon instead of a full-stop. The time to do that is when the sentences are linked by their content in some close way. This is how the semi-colon acts as a sort of colon – if the first sentence was followed by a colon, the second sentence would explain the first in some way. With a semi-colon between them, two sentences are also closely linked contextually, but not at that specific explanatory level.
Here are some examples:
- I walk to the park every Sunday morning; the gates open at ten.
- She looked at me as though I was a monster; I felt my stomach sink.
The test for using a semi-colon in sentence structure is – could you replace it with a full-stop? If the answer is yes, then it is ok to use it. If the answer is no, then please don’t use it!
2. When you are listing something
I think most people know that when you are about to list a whole bunch of stuff, you signal that with a colon. Normally, things in a list are separated by commas. But, sometimes, it is appropriate to use semi-colons instead. This is the only time when a semi-colon can stand in for a comma. And it is only used this way when the items in the list could become confused (or confusing) due to the use of commas for additional phrases. For example:
- She gave me her shopping list: apples, pears, bread, milk, chocolate, and biscuits. [commas are fine; a semi-colon isn’t needed!]
- She gave me her shopping list: apples to give to Joseph and make pies for Saturday; pears for Aunty Flo and the baking contest; bread for sandwiches for the picnic; milk, even though she knows Toby can’t drink it and Stephanie doesn’t like it; chocolate for me, because she knows I can’t live without it, although she’s been trying to get me to stop eating it for several weeks; and biscuits, which we have to stock up on, because when Nana visits she goes ballistic if she can’t have something to dunk in her tea. [without the semi-colons to separate list items, the reader could easily become confused]
Feeling more confident about semi-colons now? Want a second opinion about some sentences you have in mind? Don’t hesitate to post here for some help!
Having dialogue in a story is great. Dialogue allows characters to speak in their own voices and can quicken the story’s pace. To some of you, the following tips will seem obvious, but to others they may be something you need to remind yourself of when you proofread your work:
1) Each new speaker needs to start on a new line. For example:
“Where did you leave it?” John asked.
“In the shed.”
“Did anyone see you?”
2) Use double OR single quotation marks. When writing for yourself, doing one or the other is simply about consistency. Using one type allows you to reserve the other type for internal quotation marks (see below). However, different publishers may prefer you to use a particular type of quotation mark – check what they want before sending anything off.
3) Put all sentence punctuation (commas, periods, question marks, exclamation marks)inside the quotation marks:
“I don’t think so,” Mary whispered.
“What do you mean, ‘you don’t think so’?”
“I couldn’t be sure.”
4) If you are adding a descriptor after the quotation marks, the final punctuation mark can never be a period, semi-colon or colon. This is because what comes after the quotation marks should be considered part of the overall sentence (unless you are starting a new sentence).
A good practice is to read it out loud to yourself. There shouldn’t be a long pause if you are describing what was said; a long pause only comes into play if you have started a new sentence (which is a sentence that, if you isolated it, doesn’t beg you to answer what?):
“What do you mean?!” he repeated.
“There was a man walking his dog, but I don’t know…” She swallowed. “He might have seen me, but-” She cut herself off.
John picked up his keys.
“I’m going to collect it now then,” he said.
Here, ‘he repeated’ and ‘he said’ make you wonder – what did he repeat? He said what? Both are descriptors, not new sentences. In comparison, ‘She swallowed’ and ‘She cut herself off’ make sense by themselves. These are new sentences so require capitalisation and can come after a dash, an ellipsis – or a full stop.
Do you have any pesky questions about dialogue you’d like some advice on? Please post them here as comments – just paste in your sentence and question and we’d be happy to give advice!